Exercise throughout a person's life plays a significant role in reducing the risk of developing dementia, a study spanning 35 years has found.
The Cardiff University study following 2,235 men from Caerphilly, south Wales, found factors including diet and not smoking had an impact on preventing illnesses developing in older age.
However exercise had the single biggest influence on dementia levels.
Researchers stressed an overall healthy lifestyle was key to cutting disease.
The findings come just two days before a G8 summit on dementia, which is predicted will affect 135m people worldwide by 2050.
'Really amazed us'
The research by Cardiff University found the five factors that were integral to helping avoid disease were regular exercise, not smoking, low bodyweight, healthy diet and low alcohol intake.
People in the study who followed four of these had a 60% decline in dementia and cognitive decline rates, with exercise named as the strongest mitigating factor.
They also had 70% fewer instances of diabetes, heart disease and stroke, compared with people who followed none of the factors.
Professor Peter Elwood, who led the study on behalf of Cardiff School of Medicine, said healthy behaviour was far more beneficial than any medical treatment or preventative procedure.
"The size of reduction in the instance of disease owing to these simple healthy steps has really amazed us and is of enormous importance in an ageing population," he said.
"Taking up and following a healthy lifestyle is however the responsibility of the individual him or herself.
"Sadly, the evidence from this study shows that very few people follow a fully healthy lifestyle."
'More active lifestyle'
Prof Elwood stressed that while one aspect of the five strands of behaviour mentioned may have more impact on certain illnesses, the emphasis was on an overall healthy lifestyle.
"Exercise happens to be the most important but the other factors come in very close behind," he added.
He told BBC Wales while the recommended levels of exercise were half an hour five times a week, it did not mean having to go to a gym.
"We should all live a more active lifestyle. If I park my car a mile from work - that makes me likely to do more than the half an hour a day. Any exercise has some benefit and the more, the better."
The research showed that while smoking levels had dropped over the 35 years, the number of people leading what the team described as a fully healthy lifestyle had not changed.
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