Barcelona's £60m striker Zlatan Ibrahimovic stepped off the bench to score the only goal of a fiercely contested El Clasico against Real Madrid and move Barca back to the top of the league.
Barca, who started the game a point behind their arch rivals, finished the game with 10 men when Sergio Busquets was shown a second yellow card just after the hour mark.
But by that time they had a lead courtesy of Ibrahimovic's brilliantly-struck left-foot volley from Dani Alves' right-wing cross - the Swede netting just minutes after coming on for Thierry Henry.
Real created the better of the chances in the Camp Nou, but paid for their wastefulness, with substitute Karim Benzema most culpable as he ballooned haplessly over with only five minutes left.
Barca captain Carles Puyol twice crucially denied Marcelo with last-ditch blocks as the Brazilian prepared to shoot and, despite a fraught last few minutes, Barca held on for victory.
Real ended the game with 10 men too, as Lassana Diarra was booked for the second time in the last minute after a reckless kick out at Xavi.
Barca move two points ahead of Real, but there is plenty of life left in this Spanish league season and the Catalans, who swept all before them last year, will know they face a real threat to their La Liga crown in Manuel Pellegrini's Real.
The last time these two teams met Barca thrashed Real 6-2 in the Bernabeu in May as they romped to the league title as well as picking up the Champions League and Spanish Cup.
Real hit back in the summer, splashing out nearly £250m as Florentino Perez, in his second spell as president, began the second era of Galacticos by signing Cristiano Ronaldo, Kaka, Benzema and Xabi Alonso, among others.
Real's football this season has rarely hit the heights, but they have been instantly effective and went into the game a point ahead of Barca at the top of La Liga.
It was not difficult to see why, as the visitors caused Pep Guardiola's team far more problems than they have become accustomed to on their own turf, in front of 98,000 baying fans at the Camp Nou.
"Ronaldo & Messi"
Ronaldo, who made his first appearance in six weeks as a substitute in midweek, was handed a start and the Barca fans reserved the full extent of their vitriol for the £80m man in his first Clasico as his every touch was greeted by a cacophony of whistles.
Barca's main injury doubt was Lionel Messi but he ran the game in its opening spell, drifting infield to link up with Xavi and Henry as he had done so effectively in the Champions League final victory against Manchester United in May.
Barca, as they are prone to do, enjoyed the majority of the possession, but Real always looked a threat on the counter attack and with the pace of Ronaldo and Kaka they began to worry their hosts.
With less than 20 minutes gone it was the visitors who created the first clear-cut opening. Marcelo found Kaka and his first-time pass sent Ronaldo one-on-one with Valdes.
As the stadium held its collective breath, Ronaldo's shot struck the legs of Valdes and flew behind, the keeper pulling off a fine stop.
Soon after another lovely move involving the same three players ended with Marcelo fastening on to Kaka's pass, but just as it looked like the Brazilian had to score, Puyol threw his frame in the way to prevent the shot.
Real began the second half brighter too and only another stunning block from Puyol denied Marcelo once again. The captain's efforts were not to be wasted, as soon after his side took a lead which sent the stadium into delirium.
Ibrahimovic had only just come on for the disappointing Henry but he wasted no time in marking his first Clasico with a goal, expertly slamming in after Alves had done wonderfully to pick him out.
If Barca thought their troubles were over they were shortly to be disappointed, as Busquets bizarrely stuck out an arm in the middle of the Real half and picked up his second booking of the evening.
Real sensed their chance and Marcelo crossed for Ronaldo to head over, before the Portuguese was replaced by Benzema and the Frenchman was denied a shooting chance by yet another top-class piece of defending from Puyol.
Now Barca were the counter-attacking team and Eric Abidal drilled a left-foot shot fractions wide, before, at the other end, Benzema could only blaze over after Alonso's corner had fallen in his lap.
It was a frantic finish and after Casillas had wonderfully denied Messi from point-blank range, Diarra was dismissed, his second yellow card awarded when he lashed out at Xavi.
Barca held on and the celebrations - both on the terraces and on the field - showed how much this game means to both parties, but there is little doubt that Real have substantially closed the gap and are ready to mount a serious challenge.
Source: Jonathan Stevenson/BBC Sport
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